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CONTENTS   4 SITES  

SILO

  TETTERODE   DE LOODS   EDELWEIS   APPENDICES   NOTES   SUB-SITES

BOOK:  DAVID CARR-SMITH  -  IMPROVISED ARCHITECTURE IN AMSTERDAM INDUSTRIAL SQUATS & COLLECTIVES

"TETTERODE" SQUAT 1981-/COLLECTIVE 1986 to--   - p3(of 18)

TETTERODE'S RESIDENTIAL DOMAINS

 

< TETTERODE - p1:  INTRODUCTION < 
< TETTERODE - p2:  PUBLIC-USE & WORK-SPACES <
   TETTERODE - p3:  RESIDENTIAL DOMAINS

> TETTERODE - p4:  DACOSTAKADE BUILDINGS: MERKELBACH & HARTCAMP >

> TETTERODE - p5:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb//mb1/mb2 >

> TETTERODE - p6:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb3 >  

> TETTERODE - p7:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb4 >

> TETTERODE - p8:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb5/mb6 >

> TETTERODE - p9:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc//hc1/hc2 >  

> TETTERODE - p10:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc3 >

> TETTERODE - p11:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc4(1) > 

> TETTERODE - p12:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc4(2) > 

> TETTERODE - p13:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc5/hc6 >

> TETTERODE - p14:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT BUILDINGS >

> TETTERODE - p15:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd//bd1 >

> TETTERODE - p16:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd2 >  

> TETTERODE - p17:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd3 > 

> TETTERODE - p18:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bdN >

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TETTERODE RESIDENTIAL DOMAINS  ... in process 

The following abbreviations are used throughout the text:

BUILDING/FLOOR LOCATION CODES (NB: these differ somewhat from those used by the Tetterode Collective): 
Main building blocks:
 
dc = Dacostakade block's two buildings: mb = Dacostakade's Merkelbach building / hc = Dacostakade's Hartcamp building 
bd
= Bilderdijkstraat's two buildings: bd = the Bilderdijk old building / bdN = Bilderdijk's small north-extension building  
Floor Levels:
are numbered from the ground up: L0, L1, L2, etc; from the ground down: L0-1, , . 
Additional codes: 
e
= entresol (an intermediate-floor, a ½-height as it were), S = south / N = north (eg: 'bd-L1/eS' & 'bd-L1/eN' = the Bilderdijk building's south and north Entresols) // lm = "Lettermagazijn" (eg: 'bd-L1/elm' - an intermediate-floor enclave on the bd building's E side).

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THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
[Written 2010--]

The next sections show residential domains, domestic enclaves and living-spaces in Tetterode factory's three main buildings. On its east side is the huge 'Dacostakade' [dc] block, consisting of two very different but joined buildings named after their designers: 'Merkelbach' [mb] and ' Hartcamp' [hc]. On its west side is the 'Bilderdijk Old' building [bd] with a  'satellite' enclave in its adjacent 'Bilderdijk North' buildings [bdN]. 

The ground levels [L0] of the three main buildings [mb/hc/bd] are workshops, studios, businesses. Almost total domesticity begins from level-1 [L1] - the only exception is Merkelbach's L1 which is mainly a locked enclave of businesses and the Collective's administration, with domestic use represented only by a single small home isolated outside it.

Tetterode's mode of factory production necessitated stacks of large rectangular workshop floors that access a stair at each end via lockable steel doors. In all three buildings all these floors (apart from Merkelbach L1) are now domestic enclaves whose locked doors open into an internal passage which serves a group of private living-spaces. Most of these are homes or homes with workspaces, a few are pure workspaces whose users sleep elsewhere, however because these latter are enclosed in an enclave and share with its other denizens its inevitable collective character, facilities and decisions, they seem - unlike the 'outsider' users of the workshop zones - participants in the substance of Tetterode's residential heart. 

A few independent apts have always been outside the protection of an enclave, their entry doors opening directly from the landing of a general-circulation stair. 

More recently, the phenomenon of expanding (family) homes - taking over spaces vacated by neighbours - has resulted in two enclaves becoming huge independent apts (both in Bilderdijk L1: the "Lettermagazijn" and the South Entresol).

The buildings are visited in the following order: 

p 4 - 18RESIDENTIAL DOMAINS:
    p 4: DA COSTAKADE: two joined buildings: 'Merkelbach' and 'Hartcamp': 
        p 5 - 8: Merkelbach 
        p 9 - 13: Hartcamp 
    p 14: BILDERDIJKSTRAAT: 'Old' and 'North': 
        p 15 - 17: Bilderdijk Old building 
        p 18: Bilderdijk North building  

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LIVING-SPACE TYPES  ... in process  
[Written late-90s and 2011--]

LIVING-SPACE BUILDING (IN MERKELBACH L4)
(pic 8-1993 / to WWS?)

An example of individualistic ad hoc planning and construction: sub-dividing a large existing living-space, (possibly for a domestic inclusion) with cement-blocks - Tetterode's ubiquitous construction material.

The common type of 'stage-2' [1] living-space unit (the 'basic' small apt or apt+studio [2]) on Tetterode's factory-height floors (which average around 4m) is a one window-bay wide simple cuboid cement-block-walled space usually differentiated only with a half-height mezzanine-platform (for sleeping or storage) at its inner entry-end, reached via more or less substantial steps. Many of Hartcamp's and Bilderdijk's L2 and L3 living-spaces were (and still are in 2008) of this type, consisting of one unit or two with a connecting door (the second often a studio). Merkelbach was different - its huge live-work and apt spaces seem to retain a memory of its initially sprawling non-domestic studios. However, compared to the much broader Bilderdijk block's two upper whole-floor enclaves, whose living-spaces are arranged around or branch from central shared spaces, all Darcostakade's enclaves have the character of a single narrow lane (in Hartcamp usually straight, in Merkelbach more wandering) bordered with 'row-houses'.

Whatever the initial politic and practical restraints, by 1996 it was clear that (as their sense of the Collective's security mellowed) many of the inhabitants of this arena of (increasingly) free choice continued to modify and even completely renew their homes, and that the desire of some to increase the scope of their expressive domesticity would inevitably require enlargement of their living-spaces. These changes are both endemic to the place and especially stimulated by the multiplication/growth of families and the opportunity of vacated apts. These self-contained 'stage-3' homes, increasingly dissociated from their location and independent of shared facilities - tend to erode the collective social structure and ethos [3], while often reliant for their realisation on its shared skills and workshops.

Because these ‘house-like’ living-spaces (like those in EDELWEIS) were made in an ‘already-tamed’ site; in a single burst of building, often by visually aware ‘artists’, in ‘tabula rasa’ spaces; they convey a sense of ‘set-piece’ all-at-once design, which - accepting of course that at least part of the chicken must pre-empt the egg - nevertheless tend (like the mass-taste forms of ‘suburbia’ or the resolved/received objects of architecture) to specify the forms of living before it is lived and/or bring a previously ‘sketched’ apt to a sudden detailed finality [4]. This self-contained finality/completeness emphasised the strangeness of individual ‘houses’ stacked inside the cellular megastructure of a factory [5]. Contrast these conditions and results with the youthful SILO where domestic forms accrete in step with needs and in reciprocation with the site, where scenic wonders and even inimical features stimulate an inventiveness which is (even in jokes) pragmatically expressed in ‘immediate time’, rather than considered and aesthetic.

Foot-Notes:

  1. Stage 1 = encampments / stage 2 = solidly divided home units (the 1986 dividing and wall building phase) usually sharing basic services / stage 3 = the elaboration of these into private 'self-contained' often 'family' homes / stage 4 = 'aesthetic and cultural' design and kitsch elaboration (tending to 'luxury' and socially-recognisable styles).  

  2. I asked Rein van der Vliet [REIN APT bd-L2] the following question

    In Tetterode's domestication phase (after the initial squatting of glass-walled Merkelbach by artists for studios) a choice seems to have been made to enable a high density of occupation requiring many small apts. Why did the relatively few initial occupiers, in charge of huge empty spaces, adopt such a high-density occupation policy?

    Rein answered [text edited]:
    In the mid seventies the Dutch government introduced the so called "
    HAT-Eenheid". Under pressure by the squatting-scene, this kind of housing was ment for small one- or two-person households. These houses should be payable[?] and it should be possible to create more apartments within one house.
    I'm not really sure, but I think a one-person HAT-Unit was about 45 square meters and they were very popular shortly after their introduction and they soon were "state of the art" for modern and alternative housing. Therefore as a squat, to be able to reach a legal status, it was very important to get as close as possible to the HAT-Unit, because local bureaucrats understood how to handle those.
    For us as squatters it also was very important to be as efficient as possible with the buildings we squatted. Therefore we tried to realize as many apartments as possible to offer as many people as possible affordable apartments. On the other hand we tried to be as non-HAT as possible, because we did not like to live in "normed" apartments only a few square meters big (the so called 'egg laying battery'...). So, using the statistical facts of the building, we tried to realize as many apartments as possible, in a way that the city of Amsterdam could as easily as possible compare with HAT-Units, and we "enlarged" the HAT-Norm as much as possible to realize bigger apartments as HAT-Units.
    For Tetterode the basic statistical unit was one window for each normal apartment. For studios the assumption was that people would live and work there and therefore needed more space. And some spaces were a little bit bigger than usual, because of local statistical conditions.

     

     

  3. Indeed, when I next recorded Tetterode apts in early 2008, this type of development was blatant. 

  4. Exemplified in the 90s by INA HEUVEL/GER BERGEVOET APT [hc-L4]: Inception 1986 - in 1991 treated as a single (almost) finalised work: totally and all-at-once re-designed and re-constructed. By 2008 there were several such 'stage 3', and even 'stage 3-4' apts.

  5. Tetterode is becoming a ‘storage-cabinet’ of individualistic dwellings; a miniaturised reminder of Corbusier’s Algiers “Plan Obus”, 1930: a megastructure of open concrete shelves supporting individually styled houses. 

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This tour of residential Tetterode begins on the next page in the Dacostakade block with an account of its two buildings and their vertical routes. On subsequent pages we enter their domestic enclaves and many dwellings - starting in Merkelbach, then Hartcamp. Then we move to Tetterode's west side Bilderdijk block and explore its internal routes and enclaves. Finally we visit the quasi-domestic enclave in the Bilderdijk-North buildings.

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^ Top     > Next Page >

 

< TETTERODE - p1:  INTRODUCTION < 
< TETTERODE - p2:  PUBLIC-USE & WORK-SPACES <
   TETTERODE - p3:  RESIDENTIAL DOMAINS

> TETTERODE - p4:  DACOSTAKADE BUILDINGS: MERKELBACH & HARTCAMP >

> TETTERODE - p5:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb//mb1/mb2 >

> TETTERODE - p6:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb3 >  

> TETTERODE - p7:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb4 >

> TETTERODE - p8:  DACOSTAKADE: MERKELBACH APTS - mb5/mb6 >

> TETTERODE - p9:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc//hc1/hc2 >  

> TETTERODE - p10:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc3 >

> TETTERODE - p11:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc4(1) > 

> TETTERODE - p12:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc4(2) > 

> TETTERODE - p13:  DACOSTAKADE: HARTCAMP APTS - hc5/hc6 >

> TETTERODE - p14:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT BUILDINGS >

> TETTERODE - p15:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd//bd1 >

> TETTERODE - p16:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd2 >  

> TETTERODE - p17:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bd3 > 

> TETTERODE - p18:  BILDERDIJKSTRAAT APTS - bdN >

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CONTENTS   4 SITES  

SILO

  TETTERODE   DE LOODS   EDELWEIS   APPENDICES   NOTES   SUB-SITES